The travails of Petrobras have generated a lot of attention – and litigation – in the past year.  On July 30, 2015, District Judge Jed Rakoff, of the Southern District of New York, issued an opinion explaining his prior order largely denying the defendants’ motions to dismiss U.S. securities-law claims filed on behalf of a putative class of purchasers of Petrobras’s sponsored American Depository Shares, which are listed on the New York Stock Exchange.  In re Petrobras Securities Litigation.  But the court dismissed the claims of purchasers who – in addition to buying Petrobras securities on the NYSE or in other U.S. transactions – had also bought Petrobras securities on the Brazilian stock exchange (the “Bovespa”) and had sought to assert claims under Brazilian law as to those purchases.  The court ruled that the Brazilian-law claims were subject to a mandatory arbitration bylaw that Petrobras had adopted in 2002 by board resolution and shareholder vote.